The quality enhancer
FORMI® NDF sodium diformate improves efficiency for pigs and offers an alternative to antibiotics for gram negative bacteria post-weaning.
FORMI® NDF fulfills these demands:
- Strong anti-microbial effects
- E. coli Salmonella
- Safe and easy handling
- Optimized feed efficiency
- Supports growth performance
Mode of Action
- Promotes the beneficial microflora
- Reduces coliforms
- Reduces salmonella
- Antimicrobial effects
- Increases feed intake
- Decreases pH by 0.3 to 0.5 units
- Decreases coliforms and salmonella
- Improves digestibility of nutrients
Feces / urine
- Promotes a stable and normal microflora
- Reduces diarrhea
- Reduces nitrogen and phosphorus excretion
- Decreases pH
- Reduces coliforms and salmonella
- Improves activity of digestive enzymes
FORMI® NDF is manufactured under patented technology and is a unique combination of formic acid and sodium formate.
FORMI® NDF Recommended Dosages
14-18 lbs/t of feed
10-20 lbs/t of feed
10-12 lbs/t of feed
The next generation of Acidifiers
FORMI® 3G is a synergistically acting combination of 2 patented performance enhancers in which Glycerine-Monolaurate will enhance the impact of Diformate.
The advantages of FORMI® 3G include:
- Increased growth performance
- Strong and broad antimicrobial impact
- Signiﬁcant reduction in diarrhea risk
Hygiene and eﬃciency for animals as well as optimal safety.
- Optimum safety for humans and environment
- No residues Secure and easy handling
Ingredients in FORMI® 3G Work Together To Destroy Bacteria
Bacteria cells have a mesh-like covering made of sugars and amino acids. This covering protects the cell and is known as peptidoglycan (or murein)
When glycerin-monolaurate (GML) is introduced, the cell wall is broken down.
With the cell wall compromised, diformates can get through the cell membrane and stop duplication and ultimately contribute to cell death.
FORMI® 3G Recommended Dosages
12-24 lb/t of feed
12-24 lb/t of feed
10-16 lb/t of feed
Mycotoxicosis is the consequence of ingestion of grains or forage containing toxic metabolites produced by certain fungi. Fungi that produce toxins often do so only under specific conditions of warmth, moisture and humidity. Factors that adversely affect plants or their seeds (grains) often influence mycotoxin production. Mycotoxins can develop in field grains, damaged grains or improperly stored feeds.
Of the over 200 mycotoxins identified to date, at least seven have been reported to cause disease in swine. Some fungi produce more than one mycotoxin. Several different fungi can produce different mycotoxins in a single mixed feed. The toxins may be additive or may potentiate one another. When metabolized, they may be converted into other toxic substances. While toxicologic effects are numerous and often confusing, one should be careful not to implicate mycotoxins in disease processes without credible evidence.
Mycotoxins produce their toxic effects in several ways, including impairment of metabolic, nutritional or endocrine functions. Many mycotoxins damage the liver, reduce average daily feed intake, growth and feed efficiency. Some are teratogenic or carcinogenic. Some are immunosuppressive and predispose pigs to secondary diseases. Several mycotoxins decrease the reproductive performance of sows. Metabolites sometimes are passed in the milk of sows to their litters. The effect of mycotoxins may vary with the amount ingested, the time over which it is consumed, and the age of exposed swine. Young pigs usually are much more susceptible than adults. Within a herd there can be great variability in response to a mycotoxin.
Mycotoxicoses can present with either chronic or acute onsets. Most exposures are probably chronic or subacute as a result of consuming small amounts of toxin over a long period of time. In these instances, there may be few signs of toxicosis other than decreased appetite, slow growth, and increased susceptibility to secondary diseases. Acute outbreaks may have more obvious signs and will vary for each of the different mycotoxins. Diagnosis of chronic mycotoxicosis is often difficult because clinical signs are seldom overt and lesions are not specific. By the time a mycotoxicosis is considered, the suspected feed has often already been consumed with none having been collected and stored properly for analysis.
Prevention of mycotoxicosis is largely through careful selection and proper storage of high quality grains and other feed ingredients and the careful maintenance and cleanliness of feed preparation equipment. It often is worthwhile to properly dry and store samples of representative batches of grain that are used on a farm in the event they are needed for analysis later.
This mycotoxicosis is caused by mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus or Penicillium puberulum. Four major toxins (B1, B2, G1, G2) are produced. B1 is of greatest significance and is a potent hepatotoxin. Fungi growing on peanuts, corn, wheat and several other cereal grains commonly produce the toxins. Maximum aflatoxin formation occurs under conditions related to the specific grain, its moisture content, storage temperature and humidity.
There is a marked age-related difference in susceptibility to aflatoxicosis. Young nursing or weaned growing pigs are much more susceptible than adults. When aflatoxin is ingested by a lactating dam, toxic metabolites are passed in her milk and serve as a source of exposure to the nursing pigs. These toxins reduce feed intake, average daily gain and feed efficiency. Since aflatoxins are immunosuppressive, signs of toxicosis often include an increase in previously controlled secondary diseases.
Acute aflatoxicosis is uncommon in swine. It is usually a subacute to chronic disease caused by daily ingestion of smaller amounts of aflatoxin over several weeks. Lesions often vary noticeably among pigs in the same affected group but are predominantly those of a hepatopathy. In the more acute cases there are sudden deaths, hemorrhages in multiple tissues, and icterus. The liver may be swollen, fatty, and have areas of necrosis. There may be a prolonged clotting time. With subacute to chronic hepatotoxicosis, the liver may be reduced in size, fibrotic, and ascites may be present.
Diagnosis is usually based on some combination of a history of slow growth (often accompanied by secondary diseases that seem unresponsive to treatment), an elevation of serum enzymes associated with hepatocellular damage, and gross lesions related to liver pathology. Microscopic hepatic lesions include bile duct hyperplasia and enlargement of hepatocytes. In swine, chronic aflatoxin toxicity can occur with at levels as low as 300 ppb in the feed; acute toxicity usually doesn’t occur until concentrations beyond 1000 ppb. Aflatoxin is considered to be carcinogenic in humans.
Claviceps purpurea is a fungus of many grasses and several cereal grains, especially rye, oats and wheat. The sclerotium of the fungus is a dark, elongated body and often can be seen on cereal grain heads and in processed grains. The fungus produces three major alkaloids that cause ergotism. The primary lesions caused by the alkaloids include arteriolar vasoconstriction and endothelial cell injury that often leads to thrombosis. When present in low levels, the alkaloids can result in reduced growth rates. Larger amounts lead to ischemic necrosis followed by a dry, gangrenous sloughing of parts of extremities, especially tails, ears and hooves. Symptoms of ergotism are exacerbated by cold weather. In pregnant sows, ergotism can inhibit mammary development, reduce litter size, reduce birth weights, and cause a profound post-farrowing agalactia. The agalactia is believed to be related to inhibition of prolactin secretion.
Diagnosis of ergotism is based on lesions coupled with the gross or microscopic identification of significant numbers of ergot sclerotia in grains or the ground feed. Doubtful results may be verified by laboratory confirmation of significant amounts of alkaloids in the feed.
The fumonisins include two principal toxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Signs of acute toxicity in growing and adult pigs are primarily related to the respiratory system and include dyspnea, cyanosis, weakness and death within four to ten days. Pulmonary lesions include marked pulmonary edema and hydrothorax. Pregnant sows that survive acute toxicity frequently abort in the days following their recovery. Growing pigs that survive the acute syndrome suffer from clinical signs related to a hepatotoxicosis. Their lesions may include icterus, hepatic necrosis, and megalocytosis. Differences in lesions and clinical presentation seem to be dose related.
Recent research has demonstrated that fumonisins decrease the ability of intravascular macrophages to clear blood-borne bacteria in swine, thereby potentially increasing susceptibility to respiratory disease. Fumonisin is a well known cause of leukoencephalomalacia in horses and is carcinogenic in humans at high concentrations.
There are numerous structurally related toxic compounds produced by certain Fusarium species that are classified as trichothecene mycotoxins. At least three of these are of importance in pig production. Trichothecenes are cytotoxic to many cell types and are strongly immunosuppressive. Signs of trichothecene toxicity usually include feed refusal, salivation and, sometimes, vomiting. With chronic exposure there may be paresis, paralysis, or seizures. Lesions often include gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic diathesis, skin irritation, and necrosis.
Diagnosis of trichothecene-related toxicosis can be difficult. The presence of moldy or caked feed, along with a reluctance to consume it, may suggest the presence of a trichothecene toxicosis. Improvement following a change in feed suggests the original feed was contaminated.
In swine, the experimental administration of T-2 toxin, alone and with aflatoxin, has resulted in crusting and ulceration of the skin of the snout, lips, buccal commissures, and prepuce.
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin)
Deoxynivalenol is a commonly occurring mycotoxin in corn and wheat. Despite its common name of “vomitoxin,” swine only rarely consume a large enough dose to produce vomiting; reduced feed intake is often the only sign present.
This mycotoxin is produced by Fusarium graminearum and may be present in moldy corn, standing corn, other grains, and in pelleted cereal feeds. It has an estrogenic effect that results in vulvovaginitis and precocious mammary development in prepuberal gilts. Swelling and enlargement of the vulva sometimes lead to tenesmus with prolapse of the rectum. Similar estrogenic effects in gilts have occurred as a result of consuming estrogens from other sources, including alfalfa.
There are few, if any, highly effective treatments for most mycotoxicoses.
A ration suspected of being toxic should be replaced with good quality feed. If a large quantity of the feed remains, it sometimes can be fed to less susceptible species or diluted with good quality feed so that the mycotoxin no longer is being fed at a toxic concentration. There are several mycotoxin “binders” on the market that can be used to prevent the absorption of some mycotoxin from the pig’s gut.
Levels that affect Swine Production
|Mycotoxin||Class of Pig||Level in Feed (ppb)||Effects|
|DON||All||1000||Decreased feed intake|
|Breeders||3000||Returns, small piglets|
|Ergot (Sorgum)||Breeders||3||Hypogalactia, weal piglets|
|Fumonisin||All swine||2000||Decreased productivity
• Respiratory – oedema
• Intestinal – gut leakage
• Immune function
Mycotoxins and Mycotxicosis in Swine
Click on the image to download the Booklet PDF 2MB
Publication name with download link
Publication name with download link
Publication name with download link
Mycotoxins Additional Information
Further information management of the effects of mycotoxins can be sourced from the specialnutrients.com website.
The following peer reviewed papers provide extensive international trial data from use of Special Nutrient technologies to manage the risk associated with mycotoxins.
For information on solutions to managing mycotoxins, please contact Apiam Solutions on (507) 934-3972 or discuss with our Technical Manager.
Apiam Animal Health Limited ACN 604 961 024
Apiam Animal Health Limited and each of its subsidiaries ('Apiam', ‘our’, 'we' or 'us') take your privacy and security very seriously. We respect your rights to privacy under the Privacy Act 1988 (Cth) (“Act”) and we comply with all of the Act’s requirements in respect of the collection, management and disclosure of your personal information. This policy relates only to the personal information management practices of Apiam. Personal information means information which identifies you as an individual, or from which your identity can reasonably be ascertained. This Policy describes how we collect, store, use and disclose personal information and also explains your rights to access and correct that information or make a complaint about our handling of our personal information (regardless of the form of the information and whether the information is true or not). This policy does not relate to personal information held about current or former employees of Apiam.
WHAT TYPE OF PERSONAL INFORMATION DO WE COLLECT?
We only collect personal information if it is necessary for one of our functions or activities. The type of personal information we collect will depend on the reason for collection. Generally, the types of personal information we collect will include name, contact details and records of communication with us.In addition, we collect information relating to:
Veterinary clients and/or retail customers
- information about your pet or animal ownership details; insurance details (if applicable) for the treatment of your pet or animal;
- details of the products and services you have purchased from us or which you have enquired about, together with any additional information necessary to deliver those products and services and to respond to your enquiries;
- marketing preferences, including the type of marketing materials you wish to receive and the method of delivery (email, SMS, direct mail, or other);
- responses to customer satisfaction, service development, quality control and research surveys and similar activities;
- any additional information relating to you that you provide to us directly through our websites or indirectly through use of our websites or online presence, through our representatives or otherwise; and information you provide to us through our customer surveys or visits by our representatives from time to time.
- We may also be required to collect your personal information under State and Territory veterinary surgeons’ legislation.
- employment and academic histories and the names of referees. We will collect this information directly from organisations that provide recruitment related services to us, and from third parties who provide job applications with professional or personal references.
We will also collect information, including names and contact details, about:
- people involved in or through organisation that we support;
- our suppliers (this information is collected for business-related purposes but contains some limited personal information such as contact details of the people that we liaise with);
- people who correspond with us, including through our website, in which case we may keep a copy of that correspondence and relevant contact details; and
- people who request information updates about us through our mailing list.
HOW WE COLLECT AND HOLD PERSONAL INFORMATION
Where it is reasonable and practicable to do so, we collect personal information directly from you when you correspond or register your details with us, when you present your pet or animal for treatment at one of our clinics or provide feedback to us. Depending on the nature of our interaction with you, we may collect personal information from third parties – for example, information about job applications is collected in manner set out above; where new veterinary practices join the Apiam group and from organisations with whom we have an affiliation. Apiam may also collect personal information about individual veterinary surgeons (for example where other veterinary surgeons are also involved in the care of an animal), contractors and other individuals who interact with us. This information is generally collected for administration and management purposes. We hold personal information in hard copy (paper) or electronic form. If you provide information to us electronically, we retain this information in our computer systems and databases. Information held in electronic form is generally held on servers controlled by Apiam or on servers controlled by third parties under contractual arrangement with Apiam in Australia. Apiam uses physical security, password protection and other measures to ensure that personal information stored in electronic form is protected from misuse, interference and loss; and from unauthorised access, modification and disclosure. Personal information collected in hard copy (paper) form may be converted to electronic form. Information held in paper-based form is generally securely stored at our veterinary clinics, or our head office. Apiam uses physical security and other measures to ensure that personal information in hard copy form is protected from misuse, interference and loss; and from unauthorised access, modification and disclosure.
WHY WE COLLECT, HOLD AND USE PERSONAL INFORMATION
We may use personal information for the primary purpose for which it is collected (e.g. the provision of our veterinary services) or for purposes related to the primary purpose where it would be reasonably expected that we would use the information in such a way, or in other limited circumstances as set out in the Privacy Act 1988 (Privacy Act). We collect, hold and use your personal information to:
- to provide safe and effective veterinary care to your pet or animal;
- to provide products and services to you and to send communications requested by you;
- to answer enquiries and provide information or advice about existing and new products or services;
- to communicate with you about upcoming appointments, health checks, vaccination schedules and other related veterinary care matters;
- ▪ to manage, monitor, plan and evaluate our services;
- for safety and quality assurance and improvement activities;
- for testing and maintenance of information technology systems;
- for product and service development, quality control and research to improve the way Apiam and its service provides provide products and services to us and you;
- to seek your feedback in relation to customer satisfaction and our relationship with you and perform research and statistical analysis using such feedback;
- to correspond with people who have contacted us, and deal with feedback;
- to recruit and assess potential employees;
- for marketing (including direct marketing), planning, product or service development, quality control and research purposes of Apiam and its related bodies corporate;
- to maintain and update our records;
- to comply with any law, rule, regulation, lawful and binding determination, decision or direction of a regulator, or in co-operation with any governmental authority of any country;
- to answer your questions, provide you with information or advice (including general pet health advice) or consider and respond to requests or complaints made by you.
WHY WE DISCLOSE PERSONAL INFORMATION
We may not disclose personal information to third parties unless we are permitted to do so by law or we have obtained consent to do so. We may disclose personal information for the primary purpose for which it is collected or for purposes related to the primary purpose where it would be reasonably be expected that we would use the information in such a way. Third parties we may disclose personal information to include:
- Veterinary care professionals (for example, veterinary pathologists) in the course of the provision of veterinary care to your pet or animal (where this is consistent with our veterinary surgeons' legal and professional obligations);
- Data analysts, IT service providers and our advisors including our professional advisors (including legal and financial advisors);
- Financial institutions involved with administering billing (including administration of insurance and other third-party payment arrangements) and debt recovery; and
- Government agencies.
- We take steps to ensure that our service providers are obliged to protect the privacy and security of personal information and use it only for the purpose for which it is disclosed.
OVERSEAS DISCLOSURE OF PERSONAL INFORMATION
Unless we have your consent, or an exception under the Australian Privacy Principles applies, we will only disclose your personal information to overseas recipients where we have taken reasonable steps to ensure that the overseas recipient does not breach the Australian Privacy Principles in relation to your personal information. We may use cloud computing services or data storage located overseas in which case information may be stored, under our control, on computer servers located outside of Australia.
ACCESSING AND CORRECTING PERSONAL INFORMATION
You can request access to your personal information held by us, or request that it be corrected, by contacting us at the address below.Where we hold information that you are entitled to access, we will try to provide you with suitable means of accessing it (for example, by mailing or emailing it to you). There may be instances where we cannot grant you access to the personal information we hold. For example, we may need to refuse access if granting access would interfere with the privacy of others or if it would result in a breach of confidentiality. If that happens, we will give you written reasons for any refusal. If you believe that personal information we hold about you is incorrect, incomplete or inaccurate, then you may request that we amend it. We will consider if the information requires amendment. If we do not agree that there are grounds for amendment then we will add a note to the personal information stating that you disagree with it.
DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL INFORMATION
Apiam take reasonable steps to destroy or permanently de-identify your personal information where it is no longer required. Personal information which forms part of our veterinary surgeons' treatment records must be maintained in accordance with legislative and professional requirements.
COMPLAINTS ABOUT HANDLING OF PERSONAL INFORMATION
CHANGES TO THIS POLICY
- Call us: (03) 5445 5999
- Email: privacy*apiam.com.au
- In Writing: The Privacy Officer – Apiam, PO Box 2388, Bendigo DC, Vic 3554
Contact Jordan Paulsrud
Address 1608 South Minnesota Avenue, St Peter, Minnesota 56082
Telephone: (507) 380-7507